Notices for Users of the Albums

1. New Albums and some changes


The latest genera Albums added to the Operation Wildflower Site are the ones on Tritoniopsis, Melianthus and Metalasia. This means that photos and stories of plants belonging to these genera already on the Site have been moved from the more general Albums called Bulbs and Shrubs into their own new Albums under Genera. 


There is a genus Album in every case where enough material has been accumulated to warrant a stand-alone grouping of photos and stories. There are now more than 160 such Albums on genera of South African plants. The biggest ones (most photos) belong to the genera Crassula, Euphorbia, Pelargonium and Aloe. Keep watching, more will be added! If there is no genus Album yet on the plant you are looking for, check under Types or the Search Box.


In order to access all items on a plant of interest, the Search Box should be used, entering the botanical name of the plant. Most photos and stories on a particular plant are likely to be posted under Genera, (or if there are only few of them, in the conglomerate categories under Types). Habitat, Regions or Parks and Gardens may also contain some material on a species searched for, showing in the list generated when using the Search Box. The latest Regions Album is the one on the Langkloof. A new Parks and Gardens Album for the Caledon Wildflower Garden has also been created from existing material.


2. Want to talk about an Album Item?


There is a new way of communicating with the Editor of this Site regarding any of the Album Items.
Comments, questions, corrections, information and suggestions can be put to the Editor by using the following email address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..


Please ensure that the Album Item concerned is clearly identified. Type its exact title as well as the Album Name in the Subject Line of your email. Please also state your name.


Similarly, communication regarding the functioning or technical aspects of the Site can be directed to the Webmaster at: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..




Maytenus undata

Botanical name

Maytenus undata

Other names

Koko tree; South African holly; kokoboom (Afrikaans)




An evergreen, often a much-branched shrub of around 3m; occasionally in dense forest conditions it may be an erect, single-stemmed tree of four to five times that height

Description of stem

The bark is dark grey to grey-brown and smooth, becoming rough with age and flaking in square patches;  young twigs purplish

Description of leaves

Variable leaf forms, although the toothing of the edges is a characteristic feature;  ovate, oblong, leathery, pale green or greyish, although sometimes dark green; a dark mark at the tips of the leaf toothing

Description of flowers

Small greenish yellow or pinkish white flowers in axillary clusters appear through spring and summer

Desciption of seed/fruit

Dehiscent reddish brown, three-lobed capsules expose bright yellow seeds

Description of roots



A very variable species, partly dependent on the area in which it grows

Propagation and cultivation

Grown from seed or cuttings, best in forest conditions with much leaf material or compost in the soil and regular watering


Better in medium to higher rainfall areas


Garden tree or shrub that attracts fruit-eating birds; the wood is used for making smaller items such as tool handles

Ecological rarity


Pests and diseases





Bushveld, riverine bush, forest edges and in dense forests


Eastern Cape, Kwazulu-Natal, Free State, Gauteng, North West, Limpopo, Mpumalanga


South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar, The Comores, Ethiopia, Somalia, Yemen

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