Severe damage has been caused to the lower trunk of this quiver tree in its forest in Namaqualand.
The ring of dead parts on the ground indicates loss. Suffering? Maybe not pain as we know it but suffering nevertheless, even in the absence of consciousness. Lifespan may be reduced and less seed may be set, thwarting or limiting the main objective of being a flowering plant. Much plant effort is expended on achieving that.
Nature is its own hospital. Time is a health worker toiling beside the internal plant facilities and natural processes that gradually overcome the injury. When limits of healing capacity are exceeded, the plant dies.
People have learnt how to care for plant injuries caused by pruning, cuttings, grafting and natural causes like wind, worms or elephants, but these science and technology fields exist to benefit humans, plant welfare incidental or a function of them.