The colour of the disc florets in the open flowerhead of Berkheya onobromoides shown here is more brightly yellow than sometimes seen. The colourful florets are inviting to pollinators, while the surrounding involucral bracts spell danger to any party with hostile intent, such as eating, picking or damaging the plant's procreative treasure. Defence mechanisms must be aligned to most likely threats for serving survival interests the best.
Some spherical, buff coloured buds on red stalks, very well protected by their own spiny bracts, are waiting their turn.
This plant was photographed during December in the reserve of the road through the Koo Valley from the N1 to Montagu in fair summer heat (Bond and Goldblatt, 1984; iSpot; Vlok and Schutte-Vlok, 2010).