The innermost floral bracts adhering to the outsides of the coppery Berkheya fruticosa ray florets in picture are narrower than the next row of bracts already spreading below the budding head. These are in turn narrower than the leaves further down.
Bracts and leaves have similar marginal spines that are well-spaced, straight and skin-threatening. Melianthus warns off intruders by strong smell, Berkheya by inflicting pain.
Upper leaf and bract surfaces shine with few veins and limited or no short hairs. Lower surfaces are white and densely velvety (Le Roux, et al, 2005; iNaturalist).