These glossy green Arctopus echinatus leaves have their veins recessed on the dark to yellow green blades in picture. The reticulation of the secondary veins create a quilted appearance for the upper surfaces. The leaves are ovate in shape to nearly round, overlapping on the ground. Yellow or brown marginal leaf spines vary in size.
This is a female plant. Its densely clustered flowers are surrounded by spine-tipped bracts that also have one or two inflexed lateral spines each (Manning, 2007; Bean and Johns, 2005; iNaturalist).